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36th International Conference on Pediatric and Nutritional Research, will be organized around the theme “Exploring The Possibilities & Novel Research In Clinical Pediatrics”

Pediatric Nutrition 2020 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Pediatric Nutrition 2020

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 Pediatric Nutrition is the maintenance of a proper well-balanced diet consisting of the essential nutrients and the adequate caloric intake necessary to promote growth and sustain the physiologic requirements at the various stages of a child's development. Pediatric nutritional needs vary considerably with age, level of activity, and environmental conditions and they are directly related to the rate of growth. Breast Feeding has important ingredients that are not found in any infant formula, to build the baby’s immune system. Pediatric nutrition must consist of essential Vitamins and Minerals which help for the growth and development. Proteins are the basic units required mainly for the construction of the body muscles and in all the metabolic activities of the body. To increase the calcium levels intake of dairy products are needed.

 A food allergy is an abnormal immune response to food. The signs and symptoms may range from mild to severe. They may include itchiness, swelling of the tongue, vomiting, diarrhoea, hives, trouble breathing, or low blood pressure. This typically occurs within minutes to several hours of exposure. Increases in the incidence and prevalence of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and other eating disorders in children and adolescents make it critically important that pediatricians be familiar with early detection and appropriate management of these disorders. During the growing years between infancy and adolescence, adequate nutrition is of utmost importance. Child’s diet does not only support their normal growth and development, but also supports their immune system, and develops lifelong eating habits. Although dietary needs, appetites, and tastes vary widely throughout childhood, it is important to consistently provide the child with healthy options from all of the major food groups.

The diet provides adequate nutrition for the child of any developmental age and aids in establishing good eating habits. These are based on the basic food groups with considerations of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for age. Food group quantities may be divided to include between-meal snacks. The one-year olds begin to show a decrement in appetite and interest in food which should not be interpreted as “poor” appetite but rather normal for this age with a decrease in growth rate. To ensure that the diet is adequate in nutrients, one should select the toddler’s food carefully. Whereas, the nutritional needs during adolescence vary individually and according to gender. The period of greatest nutritional need coincides with the peak rate of growth during adolescence. The greatest need for girls is between 10 and 13-1/2 years, and for boys between 12 and 14-1/2 years. Since the growth and sequence of sexual development are related, it is useful to consider an adolescent’s state of maturation to assess nutritional needs accurately.

Breastfeeding offers many benefits to a baby. Breast milk contains the right balance of nutrients to help the infant grow strong and healthy. Some of the nutrients in breast milk also help protect infants against some common childhood illnesses and infections. It may also help mother's health. Certain types of cancer may occur less often in mothers who have breastfed their babies. Women who don't have health issues should try to give their babies breast milk for at least the first six months of life. 

Premature birth complications can vary between premature babies and some are more serious than others. Preterm birth complications are the leading cause of death among children under 5 years of age, responsible for nearly 1 million deaths in 2013. Neonatal resuscitation skills are essential for all health care providers who are involved in the delivery of newborns. Clinicians must use the latest non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies for effective management of neonatal pain, distress, or agitation to avoid neonatal complications. As a child is growing it is important to concentrate on health care transition planning. Nutrients and growth factors regulate brain development during fetal and early postnatal life. Hence it is important to know the neonatal nutrition. Kernicterus (Bilirubin encephalopathy) is an acquired metabolic encephalopathy of the neonatal period is one of the toxic influences. Neonatal Polycythemia, defined as a central venous hematocrit (Hct) level of greater than 65%, is a relatively common disorder in neonates.

 

The aim of the study of pediatric gastroenterology is to reduce infant and child rate of deaths, control the spread of infectious disease, promote healthy lifestyles for a long disease-free life and help ease the problems of children and adolescents. It can be acknowledged that this can be reached by learning the major and primary subject on gastroenterology. It includes the treatments involved for the betterment of gastrointestinal health in children. Gastrointestinal Tract is an organ system responsible for transporting and digesting foodstuffs, absorbing nutrients, and expelling waste. Gastrointestinal motility is defined by the movements of the digestive system, and the transit of the contents within it. When nerves or muscles in any portion of the digestive tract do not function with their normal strength and coordination, a person develops symptoms related to motility problems.

 

The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) arises initially during the process of gastrulation from the endoderm of the trilaminar embryo (week 3) and extends from the buccopharyngeal membrane to the cloacal membrane. The tract and associated organs later have contributions from all the germ cell layers. Digestion is the breakdown of food into smaller particles or individual nutrients. Obesity is the most prevalent nutritional disorder among children and adolescents in the United States. Approximately 21-24% of American children and adolescents are overweight, and another 16-18% is obese; the prevalence of obesity is highest among specific ethnic groups. Chronic abdominal pain(CAP) persists for more than 3 mo either continuously or intermittently. Intermittent pain may be referred to as recurrent abdominal pain (RAP). CAP occurs any time after 5 year of age. Up to 10% of children require evaluation for RAP. 

Gastrointestinal defects affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract. This includes the oesophagus that connects mouth with stomach, and stomach to intestines. Food travels through the tract after eating. Barrett's oesophagus is a condition where the cells of the oesophagus (gullet) grow abnormally. The biliary tract refers to the liver, gall bladder and bile ducts, and how they work together to make, store and secrete bile. Biliary disease often presents with upper abdominal pain. The pain quality is a penetrating aching or tightness, typically severe and located in the epigastrium. Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix. Appendicitis commonly presents with right lower abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and decreased appetite. Rumination syndrome, or Merycism, is a chronic motility disorder characterized by effortless regurgitation of most meals following consumption, due to the involuntary contraction of the muscles around the abdomen. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine.

 

Pediatric nutrition is the maintenance of a proper well-balanced diet consisting of the essential nutrients and the adequate caloric intake necessary to promote growth and sustain the physiologic requirements at the various stages of a child's development. Pediatric nutritional needs vary considerably with age, level of activity, and environmental conditions and they are directly related to the rate of growth. Breast Feeding has important ingredients that are not found in any infant formula, to build the baby’s immune system. Pediatric nutrition must consist of essential Vitamins and Minerals which help for the growth and development. Proteins are the basic units required mainly for the construction of the body muscles and in all the metabolic activities of the body. To increase the calcium levels intake of dairy products are needed.

Surgeons continue their efforts to improve their techniques to operate colorectal cancers. They now have a better understanding of what makes colorectal surgery more likely to be successful, such as making sure enough lymph nodes are removed during the operation. Esophageal cancer usually begins in the cells that line the inside of the oesophagus. Pancreatic cancer begins in the tissues of your pancreas an organ in your abdomen that lies horizontally behind the lower part of your stomach. Colorectal cancer is cancer that starts in the colon or rectum. The colon and the rectum are parts of the large intestine, which is the lower part of the body’s digestive system. Pancreatic cancer is aggressive with few symptoms until the cancer is advanced. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, weight loss, diarrhoea, and jaundice. Treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Gallbladder cancer is a relatively uncommon cancer. If it is diagnosed early enough, it can be cured by removing the gallbladder, part of the liver and associated lymph nodes. Most often it is found after symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice and vomiting occur, and it has spread to other organs such as the liver.

Intussusception is the most common abdominal emergency affecting children under 2 years old. It happens when one portion of the bowel slides into the next, much like the pieces of a telescope. A hydrocele is a collection of fluid within the Processus vaginalis (PV) that produces swelling in the inguinal region or scrotum. An inguinal hernia occurs when abdominal organs protrude into the inguinal canal or scrotum. Hirschsprung’s disease is a condition that affects the large intestine (colon) and causes problems with passing stool. Intussusception is the most common abdominal emergency affecting children under 2 years old. It happens when one portion of the bowel slides into the next. An inguinal hernia occurs in the groin area when fatty or intestinal tissues push through the inguinal canal. The inguinal canal resides at the base of the abdomen. Atresia is a condition in which an orifice or passage in the body is closed or absent. Examples of atresia include: Imperforate anus, malformation of the opening between the rectum and anus.

Understanding child development is essential because it allows us to completely appreciate the cognitive, emotional, physical, social, and educational growth that children go through from birth to their early adulthood. There are five areas of child development: physical, social and emotional, approaches to learning, thinking, and communication and language.

 Children during early years of age undergo rapid growth and development that is greatly influenced by certain factors. Exclusive breastfeeding, adequate complementary feeding, stimulation, safe environment and care need to be ensured for optimum physical, mental, social and cognitive development. Children who have a good start in their life will be healthier adults resulting better life promoting Gross National Happiness.

Young children can be naughty, defiant and impulsive from time to time, which is very normal. However, some children have extremely difficult and challenging behaviours that are outside the boundry for their age. The most common disruptive behaviour disorders include oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These three behavioural disorders share common symptoms, so diagnosis is difficult and time consuming. A child or adolescent may have two disorders at the same time. Other outside factors can include emotional problems, mood disorders, family difficulties and substance abuse.

Hepatology is a branch of medicine concerned with the study, prevention, diagnosis and management of diseases that affect the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree and pancreas. The term is derived from the Greek words hepatikos and logia, which mean liver and study. Wilson's disease or hepatolenticular degeneration is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder in which copper accumulates in tissues; this manifests as neurological or psychiatric symptoms and liver disease. Liver tumors or hepatic tumors are tumors or growths on or in the liver. Several distinct types of tumors can develop in the liver because the liver is made up of various cell types. These growths can be benign or malignant (cancerous).

Case Report is a detailed report of the symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of an individual patient. Case reports contain a demographic profile of the patient and usually describes an unusual or novel occurrence. Some case reports also contain a literature review of other reported cases. The session includes discussion on Pediatric Gastroenterology, Neonatal Gastroenterology, Pediatric Gastrointestinal disorders, Pediatric hepatology, Pediatric Nutrition and Pediatric Surgery.

The study of Pediatric Cardiology is responsible for the diagnosis of congenital heart defects, performing diagnostic procedures such as echocardiograms, cardiac catheterizations and electrophysiology studies. The increasing number of neonates with congenital heart defects referred to the neonatal intensive care unit reflects the increasing awareness that the defects may be present. Chest radiography and ECG rarely assist in the neonatal diagnosis. Congestive heart failure in the foetus, or hydrops, can be detected by performing fetal echocardiography. In this case, congestive heart failure may represent underlying anemia (eg, Rh sensitization, fetal-maternal transfusion), arrhythmias (usually supraventricular tachycardia), or myocardial dysfunction (myocarditis or cardiomyopathy). Many of the pediatric heart defects such as patent ductus arteriosus interruption, vascular ring division, pericardial window, diaphragm placation, thoracic duct ligation, ligation of collateral vessels have been repaired using pediatric interventional cardiology. The barriers and challenges to achieving routinely applicable Tissue Engineered and Regenerative Cardiac Surgery Methods are also explored as is a novel concept for the Cardiac Hybrid Operating Room Suite of the 21st Century. Apart from these techniques nursing and care for pediatric cardiac patients also plays an important role for the cure of pediatric cardiac patients.

Researchers are engaged in a variety of laboratory and clinical research programs to extend their understanding of the developing nervous system and pathologic processes that underlie neurological disorders in children. The most common neurological disease is pediatric epilepsy. Approximately 70% of children who suffer epilepsy during their childhood eventually outgrow it. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a diagnostic tool used for inherited metabolic disorders. To date, MRS has been limited to the assessment for cerebral lactic acidosis in mitochondrial disorders in children. Neuromuscular and genetic metabolic diseases are the most common genetic related disorders in children. The new frontier to improve outcomes in crticially ill pediatric patients with neurological illness is Pediatric Neurocritical Care.

Pediatric Endocrinology is a medical subspecialty dealing growth disorders and sexual differentiation in childhood, as well as neonatal diabetes and other disorders of the endocrine glands. It also includes the study of the most common types of diabetes are type 1 and type 2 diabetes. There is another type of diabetes that is often misdiagnosed as type 1 or type 2  diabetes, called monogenic diabetes which is seen in children.

 Gastrointestinal disorders in children range from minor to life threatening, and short- to long-term or chronic. Neonatal Jaundice is one of the most common conditions needing medical attention in newborn babies. Gastrointestinal food allergies are not rare in infants and children. Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopic procedure a pediatric endoscopy has become an essential modality for evaluation and treatment of GI diseases. Complex gastrointestinal surgery is one of the common methods to treat GI disorder in children. The principle diseases concerned with pediatric gastroenterology are acute diarrhoea, gastritis, persistent vomiting and problems with the development of the gastric tract.

Nearly every child or teen faces some challenges as they grow up because of peer pressure, family changes, a death or other loss, managing a chronic illness, or simply because it isn’t easy making the change from being a child to being an adult. Poor mental health can affect overall well-being and can lead to emotional and behavioral changes, ADHD and learning disabilities. Many children experience loss or stress, and others must manage their chronic illness at a young age. Some children have a disorder that runs in the family and puts them at higher risk for depression or anxiety. Some children may also be affected due to school problems and relationship problems and leads to behavioral and developmental disorders. If a child or teen shows extreme anxiety, depression, problems with nightmares and sleeping, aggressive behaviors or if he talks of suicide, seek immediate cognitive behavioral therapies.

Pediatric Allergy is an important subject to be learnt in order to promote understanding and advance the treatment of respiratory, allergic, and immunologic diseases in children. It emphasizes the epidemiologic research on the most common chronic illnesses of children—asthma and allergies—as well as many less common and rare diseases. Swollen or enlarged adenoids and Tonsils are common in children. Environmental and food allergies in children occur when the children’s immune system reacts to normal harmless substances present in the environment. Pneumonia is often caused by viruses, such as the influenza virus (flu) and adenovirus. Other viruses, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus, are common causes of pneumonia in young kids and babies. Some of the Allergic reactions in children include, red eyes, atopic dermatitis (eczema), itchiness, runny nose, urticaria (hives), an asthma attack and sinusitis.